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PostPosted: Thu Jul 13, 2006 1:56 am 
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Hi everyone. Does jaspe / jaspeado describe all ikats made in Central and South America (Bolivia, Mexico, Argentina etc.) or just the double ikats from Guatemala? Plus, is Guatemala the only place in this region that produces double ikats? :mrgreen:

Many thanks in advance.


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PostPosted: Thu Jul 13, 2006 9:52 am 
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Latin American textiles are not really my area of expertise although I have a few books.

I had a look in Ann Hecht's 'The Art of the Loom: Weaving, Spinning and Dyeing across the World' because I know that Ann has spent time in Guatemala and was selected by the British Museum to write their 'textiles from Guatemala' in their Fabric Folio series.

Ann says in 'The Art of the Loom' on page 160:
Quote:
The skirt material, which is on sale in the markets, may be in a plain colour but more often a combination of colours is used in one of the following ways: striped in the warp or weft or both, making a plaid design; or using resist-dyed 'ikat' yarn which in Guatemala is called jaspe, a speciality of the village of Salcaja. Either the warp or the weft yarns, or both, are used for jaspe designs. Sometimes the area tied up to resist the dye is no more than a quarter of an inch in length on very narrow stripes and these are distributed between other plain coloured stripes to very lively effect. In other materials wider bands with more complex designs of jaspe cross each other in both warp and weft, giving an all-over effect. Yet others reserve the name of the place of origin in letters in the weft yarn, to be repeated at regular intervals.
There is a black and white photo (138) on page 161 of:
Quote:
'Jaspe material from Totonicapan. The ikat technique using resist-dyed weft yarns has been used for both the repeating design motifs and the lettering. British Museum'
.

In 'Textiles from Guatemala' Ann says on page 10:
Quote:
An important element in the production of fabrics is the dyeing, especially since the skirt material now popular is the type decorated with ikat designs (known in Guatemala as jaspe), which needs specific preparation before the thread can be dyed (see pp. 30-31). In Saleaja one sees the long warps stretched out in the road, with members of the dyer's family, even quite small children, diligently binding those areas of the design that are to remain white after the dyeing process.
On pages 30/31 are photos of a ceremonial shawl (including detail) showing
Quote:
'The Jaspe stripe (left) shows typical patterns used in tie-dyed warps - for example. The twin figures and a pine tree. The blurred edges to the designs are an inherent part of the ikat process.'
Quote:
'Ceremonial Shawl or perraje, which is worn either over the shoulder or as a wrap. Wide bands of muted coloured silk alternate with bands of hand-spun cotton jaspe thread. The knotted fringe shows considerable signs of wear.'


I think that Guatemala is the only country in Latin America with double ikat - as this is the only one I have heard mentioned. However, this is not definitive. I was chatting by email a couple of weeks ago with Sandra Niessen about a post on the forum about the double ikats in Tenganan as she had received some additional photos from Georges Breguet of the Tenganan ikats and where else double ikats are found. Sandra said: I enjoyed reviewing the postings ( http://www.tribaltextiles.info/communit ... .php?t=633 ) about Tenganan and double ikat., a nice active exchange. Double ikat is also found in E. and W. India, as well as Guatemala and Japan.' (You may know Sandra's writings on the Batak of North Sumatra).

Re Guatemalan textiles - Bill Hornaday has, I beleive, a good collection of textiles from Guatemala which was where he first started to collect textiles and caught his first attack of the textile virus from which I think he has never recovered!
Quote:

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 Post subject: Jaspe
PostPosted: Fri Jul 14, 2006 7:45 am 
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Dear Pamela, I can't thank you enough for your research! It has certainly shed light on the subject. I am happy that we have come to the conclusion that Guetamala is the only place that makes double ikats in Central / south America and that jaspe are available as weft, warp and double ikats.

But, I wonder what they call the single-ikats from the other parts like Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico...

Also, I recently learnt that "jaspe" or "jaspeado" is derived from the Latin American "jaspear" meaning to marble or speckle.

My final querie is... is jaspe made only of cotton threads, which is common in tribal textiles of rural communities, or were they also made of silk?


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PostPosted: Sun Jul 16, 2006 1:29 pm 
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Hello everyone. My understanding is that the double ikat is still produced in Guatemala and Mexico. I would assume that in Mexico. it would be way South. There is a small reference to this in "The Dyer's Art, Ikat, Batik, Plangi".

Someone in a previous post refered to the Guatemala double ikat as "sloppy". I offer the following pictures of a Totonicapan or Quezaltenango double ikat I collected in Guatemala 4 or 5 years ago. If it's sloppy, it's because of my poor pictures and this was a booger to photograph due to the color and the depth.

For some other good examples, see Altman and West's book, "Threads of Identity, Maya Costume of the 1960's in Highland Guatemala".

Best,
Richard


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 Post subject: Jaspe
PostPosted: Mon Jul 17, 2006 8:16 am 
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Hi Richard, thanks for your reply & for the images. Well, I suppose everyone has their opinion.. but I would never call any traditional ikat fabric sloppy unless it's a poor modern reproduction. The one you showed looks very fine to me.


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 Post subject: ikat in Bolivia
PostPosted: Sat Jul 22, 2006 5:28 pm 
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Dear Adline

Sorry, I have not been very diligent on the research on Latin American ikat! However, today I have had a look at one of my books on Bolivian textiles:

Bolivian Indian Textiles: Traditional Designs and Costumes Text and photography by Tamara E. Wasser4man and Johnathan S. Hill ISBN 0-486-24118-1. Dover Publications, Inc.

Quote:
Page 7, Dyes and Dyeing….
“A resist dye technique internationally known as ikat (watado in Quechua) - is sometimes used to decorate textiles in several regions. The village of Ulla Ulla, outside of Charasani, seems to specialize in warp-ikat patterning (plate 2). The villages of Calcha and Caiza in the Department of Potosi also produce ponchos with this form of design (Plates 21, top, and 22, top]. Occasionally alforjas (saddlebags, S.) with ikat patterning are found, such as the one appearing in Fig. 12.”

Quote:
Page 13
“Department of Potosi: Calcha and Caiza
South of the city of Potosi, another area creates weavings that are visually dazzling and of excellent technical quality. Villages such as Ca1cha, Vitichi and Yawisla are noted for garments of very finely spun wool. The women from these communities wear a black dress (almilla, S.), relieved by lavish embroidery on the billowing sleeves. Their black aksus are bordered with narrow bands of busy, compact geometric designs, which lend them an electrical tension. A long, thin belt is wrapped around the waist.

The Calcha man's costume is dominated by his striking poncho, made in several styles. The pante poncho is named after its prevalent burgundy background color; it is articulated with delicate, slim strips of geometries in complementary warp, as well as with thin areas of ikat. A black poncho with a few dark red bands is known as the luto (S.), referring to the practice of wearing dark clothes when mourning. The gay, multicolored ponchos with stripes of even width have been termed banderas or bolivianos, perhaps for their resemblance to the segmentations of a flag (Plate 21). The hues range from muted combinations to the more prismatic "rainbows." All of these types of ponchos are typically decorated near their borders with areas of warp-ikat patterning, a technique especially characteristic of the Calcha area (Plate 21, top). These evenly measured banded patterns may appear somewhat static when the textiles are displayed flat, but Calcha men often wear their ponchos folded or draped casually over the shoulders, allowing the cloth to flow gracefully with the contours of the body in motion.

The nearby village of Caiza is also known for the production of ikat-decorated ponchos (Plate 22, top), These ponchos differ in size and scale from those made in Calcha. Other kinds of Caiza weavings are llicllas and ponchos, made in stripes of plain weave interspersed with complementary-warp geometric designs.”


As I get a chance I will post anything relevant from my books on Latin American textiles.

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PostPosted: Sun Jul 23, 2006 12:47 pm 
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Dear Adline

Looking again at some of your questions:

Quote:
My final querie is... is jaspe made only of cotton threads, which is common in tribal textiles of rural communities, or were they also made of silk?

I do not believe that silk is native to Latin America. I would expect that the fabrics used would be cotton or wool (or, in some areas cameloid) and now some man-made threads available in the market such as acrylic fibres. The textiles that you are talking about are not the costly fabrics used by the Spanish who would/could import silk fabrics/threads. However, that is not to say that imported silk could not be used and I have found a reference (not to ikat) in "With Their Hands and Their Eyes: Maya Textiles Mirrors of a Worldview" published by the Ethnographic Museum of Antwerpen in the article 'Chiapas Textiles: The Art of Ancient Dreams' by Walter F Morris and Crol Karasik to
Quote:
"Silk brocade huipiles, last woven a century ago...."
which suggests that some silk was used by the Mayas.

I found an interesting note at the end of another article in the same volume. The article was 'Maya textile Motifs. Mirrors of a World View' by Julia Montoya.
Quote:
Jaspe or ikat is a tie-dyeing or reserve-dyeing technique. These dyed yarns are used to weave corte fabrics on the treadle loom, and also for weaving small garments on the backstrap loom. Most of the craftsmen who weave cortes are Ladinos (i.e. not indigenous), but their production is almost entirely aimed at the Maya, who are the users and to some extent determine the style or fashion of the fabrics (Montoya 1991). Craftsmen continually visit other communities to present the new styles to weavers and knowledgeable users, who select pieces to their taste and include qualities ranging from the most luxurious to the simplest and cheapest. In this way new styles, combinations of colors and materials, etc. are introduced. For special or ceremonial occasions meanwhile, orders are still passed for old-style cortes (Gloria Tujab, personal communication, Tactic, 2002).

I think it is dangerous to make definitive statement without considerable research......

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PostPosted: Sun Jul 23, 2006 3:25 pm 
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more to follow re silk i.e. 'yes' in colonial period in Mexico!! plus other info when I get a chance to pull together from further references!

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PostPosted: Tue Jul 25, 2006 5:38 pm 
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Just to add a note about silk in Guatemala. There was a concerted effort to develope a silk industry in Guatemala at the turn of the 20th century through the 20's. It was unsuccessful and subsequently abandoned. When I dig out my books, I will provide a few more details. Of course, imported silk is used in some areas, primarily for embroidery.

Bill


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PostPosted: Tue Jul 25, 2006 9:38 pm 
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Richard

My attention has been drawn to the photos which you posted above:
Quote:
I offer the following pictures of a Totonicapan or Quezaltenango double ikat I collected in Guatemala 4 or 5 years ago.
It has been suggested to me that, whilst this type of textile was produced in the Salcaja/Totonicapan/Quezaltenango area, it is not double ikat but a simple warp ikat, made to resemble the well-known Salacaja double ikats by using narrow, multicolored wefts to make the plaid effect. None of the WEFTS in the piece are tie-dyed, however. Looking closely at the photos I think that is must, indeed, be the case. Is this a trompe d'oeilof weaving?

With textiles, just as you think that you are getting the techniques there is a banana skin to slide on! Almost as bad as the 'is it embroidery or woven brocade' conundrum!

Makes it more fun, however....

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PostPosted: Tue Aug 01, 2006 1:18 pm 
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Dear readers

I've found recently your online tribal textiles.info. Some of you have questions about ikat in Guatemala. Perhaps I can help a bit, since I studied this technique in Salcaj√° (the most important production centre of Guatemala) about 18 years ago.
As far as I know, the name jaspe, is used only in Guatemala for the ikat fabrics.
It is a fact that this cottage industry in Guatemala, is very dynamic, changing, and very innovative. It is constantly changing according to demand on the markets. The production volume is huge since nowdays jaspeados have substituted almost all traditional skirt materials (mostly blue or blue with white stripes). Not only traditional skirts, but shawls, men's shirts, dashes, 'servilletas' for all uses, etc., are made from jaspe fabrics. Here I do not speak of jaspe production for other products for export or tourist's markets. Traditional or non traditional, jaspe cottage industry in Guatemala is probably the largest of the America's.

I do suggest some publications about Jaspe:
MORALES HIDALGO, Italo. 'La situación del jaspe en Guatemala'. Subcentro Regional de Artesanías y Artes Populares, Guatemala, 1984. (this is the first serious study on jaspe).
MONTOYA, Julia. 'Jaspe', Ikat in Guatemala. In: IKAT International Textile Exhibition. Hessenhuis. Antwerp, Belgium. 1991.
MIRALBES de POLANCO, Rosario. 'Magia y misterio del Jaspe'. Museo Ixchel del Traje Indígena de Guatemala. 2003.

For those having trouble with the term double ikat, this can be useful:
Guatemala produces warp ikat (jaspe de urdimbre), weft ikat (jaspe de trama) and DOUBLE IKAT or COMPOUND IKAT. Here the definition:

"Patterns come into being by the localized way in which the warp and weft are woven together. In double ikat we should differentiate between two types. With the first type the warp and weft patterns are considered separately. This means that the warp and weft patterns are not related to each other, which gives a coincidental result in the fabric. This type of ikat is also known as cross or compound ikat, because the warp and weft patterns cross each other without being attuned to each other. Traditionally we find this type of ikat in Japan and Guatemala. The second sort of double ikat is a piece of work which displays a high degree of refinement, patience and skill, a demonstration of the art of weaving. The yarn retained from the warp and weft forms a motive, which fits perfectly into the fabric. The result is a powerful effect with a clear outline. This type of fabric is woven traditionally in only two centres. On Bali, the village Tenganan Pageringsingan is known for it. The second world centre where double ikat is woven to form a pattern is Gujarat in India. known under the name 'patolu' (plural is patola). Originally, these fabrics were woven entirely in pure silk" (POLLET, Liban. In: IKAT, International Textile Exhibition, Antwerp, Belgium. 1991. page 20-21)

Natural silk is not used for jaspe in Guatemala. During colonial times, silk was imported from China through the Phillipines, but it was used mainly for embroidery and weaving some fabrics. Since the 19th century it has been replaced by rayon or viscose. However, rayon fabrics with jaspe stripes, are still woven. BUT jaspe stripes in such fabrics, are always done on cotton threads. This also is the case with acrylic wool woven fabrics.

I do recomend the reading of IKAT, International Textile Exhibition, (see above). It is no longer available, but some libraries such as that of the Museo Ixchel of Guatemala and the Etnographic Museum of Antwerp have it.


Attachments:
File comment: from POLLET, Liban. In: IKAT, International Textile Exhibition, Antwerp, Belgium. 1991. page 20
Pollet-Liban-IKAT-Antwerp-w.jpg
Pollet-Liban-IKAT-Antwerp-w.jpg [ 67.89 KiB | Viewed 13614 times ]

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PostPosted: Wed Aug 02, 2006 2:10 pm 
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Julia

You are very welcome to our forum. Thank you so much for sharing your research and experience with us. The photos are especially interesting linking as they do to the earlier photos of Guatemalan weaving which it has been suggested are not ikat but a warp ikat, made to resemble the well-known Salacaja double ikats. The photo of the Bali ikat links very nicely to the excellent photos which Suan Stem posted recently on the Tenganan thread http://www.tribaltextiles.info/communit ... .php?t=633

I find it particularly special that someone that I quoted from and referred to in the Jaspe thread has arrived on the forum and immediately joined us as a full (and posting) member. That, for me, is the real buzz from the forum!

Do tell us a little more about yourself and your research. I am so pleased to be able to broaden our group to embrace other countries, ethnic groups and fine textiles. The comparative nature of the photos you posted from the 1991 exhibition catalogue is excellent for those of us with an eye to textile techniques. I think this helps to illustrate what in a textile is a matter of culture (and history) and what is an influence (I refuse to say limitation) of the technique itself.

Very best wishes,

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PostPosted: Mon Feb 26, 2007 9:32 pm 
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Today I happened to be wearing a fairly 'mature' favourite jacket that I had not worn for some time. It is made out of fabric from Guatemala and I bought it in 1994 in Toronto. As I idlely looked at the fabric I suddenly realised that it was 'compound ikat' as discussed on this thread which I hastened to seek out. I thought that I would post a couple of details of the fabric as it is quite a nice example of warp ikat (jaspe de urdimbre), weft ikat (jaspe de trama) woven together as a compound ikat. Clearly 'the warp and weft patterns cross each other without being attuned to each other' although there is a pleasing regularity in the resulting patterning.


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File comment: Guatemalan compound ikat
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File comment: Guatemalan compound ikat
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Last edited by Pamela on Sun Jun 06, 2010 6:56 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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 Post subject: South American Ikats
PostPosted: Tue May 11, 2010 7:56 am 
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Pamela, Thanks for pointing me to this post. It has answered many of my questions. The name for ikat in Guatemala, jaspe, seems to be of Spanish origin and it was stated above that most craftmen who weave jaspe are Latinos who show samples to and take orders from the Maya who wear the textiles. Could this indicate that the Maya themselves didn't or don't use the ikat dyeing technique and that it is of more recent Spanish introduction?

It was also stated above that in Bolivia ikat is called WATADO in Quechua, which I guess is a Mayan language. Could this indicate that in Bolivia the Maya themselves use the technique and do the ikating, dyeing and weaving? Could this possibly mean that ikat is older in Bolivia and was practiced by the Maya before the Spanish arrived? Any thoughts, ideas or info on the origins of ikat in South America would be appreciated. Does anyone know what the indigo plant or dye is called in S. America?

In Indonesia the words NILA and TARUM are used for the plant and color throughout many local languages which are distinct and uninteligible to each other. Their words for the indigo plant and their names for the parts of the backstrap loom are very similar however. This would seem to indicate that at some point the knowledge of weaving on the backstrap loom and dyeing with the indigo plant was received by all of these many tribal groups from some common source and that the vocabulary of the new knowledge was also incorporated into their distinct languages.

I believe the words NILA and TARUM are of Sanskrit, Indian, origin and may point to a source for dyeing, weaving and perhaps ikating knowledge throughout hundreds of tribal groups in Southeast Asia. I am trying to collect linguistic information from any tribe or ethnic group who use the ikat dyeing technique. In particular I am trying to research the names for the parts of the backstrap loom, the colors indigo, morinda and other colors dyed, and the name for the ikat dyeing technique. Any input from members with such info or ideas where it could be accessed or found would be greatly appreciated.

A lot of discussion about techniques and motifs in relation to origins is found but there seems to be little linguistic info concerning dyeing, ikating and weaving. I think the names for the parts of the loom, the ikat and other decorative techniques and the colors dyed can provide valuable clues to origins. Thanks in advance, MAC


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PostPosted: Mon May 17, 2010 9:21 pm 
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The word in Spanish for "tie" is "atar" and the past participle 'tied" is "atado". Therefore I strongly suspect that the word "watado" that the Quechua speaking people of Bolivia are using has its origin in this Spanish word. I have seen and collected a few examples of it in Calcha, Bolivia where small strips were incorporated into ponchos-very basic simple designs. One of my weaving teachers in Candearia was making a heavy woollen bed cover weaving in designs and lettering with her husband's and her names in ikat. She told me that this was a local tradition for a newly-wed woman.
I have a publication from the Museo Ixchel of Guatemala City by Humberto Ak'abal which opens with this...
"Jaspe, or jasper, in the language of minerals is a stone. But in the language of Guatemala's traditional Maya weavings it refers to the creation of a design that begins with a knot, that later expands on the loom and finally creates a variegated pattern across the cloth; therein lies the mystery of a knot that becomes a design, or the discovery of a figure enclosed within a knot."

What a wonderfully enticing description!! "Jaspe" does seem to be applied to all forms whether they be only warp or warp and weft.

I have seen a lot of ikat in Ecuador especially around Cuenca in the south, the big bold ikat ponchos of the Mapuche of central Chile, as well as the small examples already mentioned here in Bolivia. I have only seen warp and weft ikat in Guatemala but this in no way would lead me to conclude that it is unique to Guatemala amongst central and south American countries.

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Last edited by Laverne on Mon May 17, 2010 9:36 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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