of the Southern Thai of Viet Nam - Michael C Howard and Kim Be Howard
Textile Museum Journal 1999-2000
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Howard and Howard talk in the article of the complexities of the identifying of Black Thai and White Thai in northern Vietnam:
"While the Thai to the north are relatively easy to identify as Black Tai (Tai Dam) or White Tai (Tai Don or Tai Khao) the matter is more complex among the Southern Thai in Hoa Binh, Thanh Hoa and Nghe An provinces. To begin with, some of these Thai are most commonly known by their place name. Thus, the White Tai of Mai Chau are often called Tai Mai Chau and the Black Tai of Muang Daang were sometimes called Tai Muang Daang. The latter were referred to by the French as Tai Deng or Red Tai (Robert 1941). Most Thai in this region also use the Black and White designations, but in a rather confusing fashion. Thus, most of the Thai in northern Thanh Hoa Province refer to themselves as Tai Dam (Black Thai), even though culturally they are predominatly White Thai.
The Thai in southern Thanh Hoa and Nghe An Province are known either as Tai Muang (Tai living in the muang) or Thai Thanh (Tai from Muang Thanh). .. In addition, the Tai Muang call themselves White Tai and the Thai Thanh call themselves Black Tai. Culturally the situation among these Thai is complicated by the fact that the White Tai and Black Tai throughout this region have mixed to varying degrees over the centuries."